Exploratory Case Study for Key Successful Factors of Product Service System

박아름, 진동수, 이경전, Product-Service System(PSS) 성공과 실패요인에 관한 탐색적 사례 연구, 지능정보연구, 17(4), 2011. (PDF) in Korean

Product Service System(PSS), which is an integrated combination of product and service, provides new value to customer and makes companies sustainable as well. The objective of this paper draws Critical Successful Factors(CSF) of PSS through multiple case study. First, we review various concepts and types in PSS and Platform business literature currently available on this topic. Second, after investigating various cases with the characteristics of PSS and platform business, we select four cases of ‘iPod of Apple’, ‘Kindle of Amazon’, ‘Zune of Microsoft’, and ‘e-book reader of Sony’. Then, the four cases are categorized as successful and failed cases according to criteria of case selection and PSS classification. We consider two methodologies for the case selection, i.e., ‘Strategies for the Selection of Samples and Cases’ proposed by Bent(2006) and the seven case selection procedures proposed by Jason and John(2008). For case selection, ‘Stratified sample and Paradigmatic cases’ is adopted as one of several options for sampling. Then, we use the seven case selection procedures such as ‘typical’, ‘diverse’, ‘extreme’, ‘deviant’, ‘influential’, ‘most-similar’, and ‘mostdifferent’ and among them only three procedures of ‘diverse’, ‘most?similar’, and ‘most-different’ are applied for the case selection. For PSS classification, the eight PSS types, suggested by Tukker(2004), of ‘product related’, ‘advice and consulancy’, ‘product lease’, ‘product renting/sharing’, ‘product pooling’, ‘activity management’, ‘pay per service unit’, ‘functional result’ are utilized. We categorize the four selected cases as a product oriented group because the cases not only sell a product, but also offer service needed during the use phase of the product. Then, we analyze the four cases by using cross-case pattern that Eisenhardt(1991) suggested. Eisenhardt(1991) argued that three processes are required for avoiding reaching premature or even false conclusion. The fist step includes selecting categories of dimensions and finding within-group similarities coupled with intergroup difference. In the second process, pairs of cases are selected and listed. The second step forces researchers to find the subtle similarities and differences between cases. The third process is to divide the data by data source. The result of cross-case pattern indicates that the similarities of iPod and Kindle as successful cases are convenient user interface, successful plarform strategy, and rich contents. The differences between the successful cases are that, wheares iPod has been recognized as the culture code, Kindle has implemented a low price as its main strategy. Meanwhile, the similarities of Zune and PRS series as failed cases are lack of sufficient applications and contents. The differences between the failed cases are that, wheares Zune adopted an undifferentiated strategy, PRS series conducted high-price strategy. From the analysis of the cases, we generate three hypotheses. The first hypothesis assumes that a successful PSS system requires convenient user interface. The second hypothesis assumes that a successful PSS system requires a reciprocal(win/win) business model. The third hypothesis assumes that a successful PSS system requires sufficient quantities of applications and contents. To verify the hypotheses, we uses the cross-matching (or pattern matching) methodology. The methodology matches three key words (user interface, reciprocal business model, contents) of the hypotheses to the previous papers related to PSS, digital contents, and Information System (IS). Finally, this paper suggests the three implications from analyzed results. A successful PSS system needs to provide differentiated value for customers such as convenient user interface, e.g., the simple design of iTunes (iPod) and the provision of connection to Kindle Store without any charge. A successful PSS system also requires a mutually benefitable business model as Apple and Amazon implement .

Bankruptcy Prediction Modeling Using Multiple Neural Network Models

Shin, K. Lee, K., Bankruptcy Prediction Modeling Using Multiple Neural Network Models, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 3214:668–674, September, 2004. – SCIE, ISSN:0302-9743


The primary goal of this paper is to get over the limitations of single neural network models through model integration so as to increase the accuracy of bankruptcy prediction. We take the closeness of the output value to either 0 or 1 as the models confidence in its prediction as to whether or not a company is going to bankrupt. In case where multiple models yield conflicting prediction results, our integrated model takes the output value of the highest confidence as the final output. The output of the confidence-based integration approach significantly increases the prediction performance. The results of composite prediction suggest that the proposed approach will offer improved performance in business classification problems by integrating case-specific knowledge with the confidence information and general knowledge with the multi-layer perceptrons generalization capability.

Neuro-genetic Approach for Bankruptcy Prediction Modeling

Shin, K. Lee, K., Neuro-genetic Approach for Bankruptcy Prediction Modeling, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 3214:646–652, September, 2004. – SCIE, ISSN:0302-9743.


Artificial neural network (ANN) modeling has become the dominant modeling paradigm for bankruptcy prediction. To further improve the neural networks prediction capability, the integration of the ANN models and the hybridization of ANN with relevant paradigms such as evolutionary computing has been demanded. This paper first attempted to apply neurogenetic approach to bankruptcy prediction problem for finding optimal weights and confirmed that the approach can be a good methodology though it currently could not outperform the backpropagation learning algorithm. The result of this paper shows a possibility of neurogenetic approach to bankruptcy prediction problem since the simple neurogenetic approach produced a meaningful performance.

Support Vector Machines Approach to Pattern Detection in Bankruptcy Prediction and its Contingency

Shin, K., Lee, K., Kim, H., Support Vector Machines Approach to Pattern Detection in Bankruptcy Prediction and its Contingency, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3316:1254-1259, November, 2004.  – SCIE ISSN:0302-9743. pdf


This study investigates the effectiveness of support vector machines (SVM) approach in detecting the underlying data pattern for the corporate failure prediction tasks. Back-propagation neural network (BPN) has some limitations in that it needs a modeling art to find an appropriate structure and optimal solution and also large training set enough to search the weights of the network. SVM extracts the optimal solution with the small training set by capturing geometric characteristics of feature space without deriving weights of networks from the training data. In this study, we show the advantage of SVM approach over BPN to the problem of corporate bankruptcy prediction. SVM shows the highest level of accuracies and better generalization performance than BPN especially when the training set size is smaller.

Analysis of Best Practice Policy and Benchmarking Behavior for Government Knowledge Management

Lee, K., Jeon, B., “Analysis of Best Practice Policy and Benchmarking Behavior for Government Knowledge Management,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. Vol. 3035, 70 – 79, May, 2004. – SCIE, ISSN:0302-9743. pdf


Korean government has several best practice competition and diffusion programs for the purpose of public administration reform and the improvement of government service. From the perspective of knowledge management, this paper evaluates the best practice policy and analyzes the main factors influencing the recognition, adoption and utilization of best practices through the email-based survey and interview with local government officers. The result shows that 1) The government officers’ recognition of best practice programs and the best practices themselves is not high, 2) The adoption and utilization of a best practice is affected by its value and officer’s information needs, 3) Raising the recognition of Best practice policy affects the recognition and adoption of a best practice, and 4) The recognition and utilization of a best practice is affected by the work experience. The result gives important implications for designing and implementing government knowledge management systems and strategies.