Chatbot as a New Business Communication Tool: The Case of Naver TalkTalk
published in Business Communication: Research & Practice, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2017.
Miri Heo & Kyoung Jun Lee
School of Management, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea
Objectives: Chatbot is a program that talks in voice or text. It is equipped with artificial intelligence technology (AI) and is developed in a way to combine with messenger, offering companies new opportunities for business communication. Companies expect cost savings and sales increases by providing chatbot-based services to their customers, such as providing responses to inquiries and fulfilling orders without time constraints. However, the current absence of conversationally perfect AI technology creates a climate in which the public holds unreasonable expectations, as businesses fail to understand the current status of AI and the marketing of chatbot technology companies is hyped.
Methods: This is a single-case study. While looking for a successfully deployed chatbot, we found Naver TalkTalk, a card-based chatbot application. We interviewed Naver’s managerial and technical staff four times and acquired internal data as well as external data.
Results: We illustrate Naver TalkTalk, a successful card-based business chatbot, and examine how Naver TalkTalk has developed and evolved for effective business communication. The first chatbot started without automation and then failed in the process of evolving to automation. This chatbot was changed to cardbot and was re-automated based on the card-based interface and RPA (Robotic Process Automation).
Conclusion: The cardbot-based chatbot is quick and easy to handle, which is why it has been popular among users. It is now becoming a new business communication channel to attract new customers. In addition, the proper automation of business communication is increasing efficiency and reducing costs of businesses.
이경전, 진동수, “지능형 에이전트가 인터넷 사업에 미치는 영향: 사업 모형 관점에서의 분석”, 한국지능정보시스템학회 논문지, 6(2):49-62, 2000 (12월). (PDF) in Korean
본 논문은 향후 인터넷 사용의 많은 두 부분이 현재의 인간 사용자에서 지능형 에이전트로 옮겨져 갈 때 현 인터넷 사업 모형에 영향(Impact)으로 작용할 수 있는 요소들을 분석하고, 이로 야기되는 새로운 사업 모형의 출현 및 현 사업 모형에 예상되는 변화에 대하여 살펴보고자 한다. 지능형 에이전트로 인하여 인터넷 사업에 있어서 예상 가능한 주요 변화를 사업 모형 관점에서 제품, 서비스, 정보 흐름(Flow)의 변화, 참여자의 역할(Role)의 변화, 수익원천(Revenue)의 변화, 참여자간의 혜택 (Benefit)의 변화, 비용분담(Cost Distribution)구조 변화라는 다섯 가지 측면에서 현재의 인터넷 사업에 있어서 배너광고 모델, 가격책정 모델, 중개자 모델, 브랜드 및 명성 효과, 디지털 카르텔 등의 주요 현상과 결부시켜 살펴본다. 이를 통하여 향후 지능형 에이전트 기반의 사업 모형에 대비한 전략적 시사점(Imp1ications)을 제공하고자 한다.
고길곤, 이경전, “AHP에서의 응답일관성 모수의 통계적 특성과 활용 방안”, 한국경영과학회지, 26(4):71-82, 2001(12월). (PDF) in Korean
Using the computer simulation method, we invest19ate the probability distribution of maximum eigenvalue of pair-wise comparison matrix, which has been used as a parameter for measuring the consistency of responses in analytic hierarchy process (AHP). We show that the shape of the distribution of the maximum eigenvalue is different according to the dimension of the matrix. In addition, we cannot find any evidence that the distribution of the Consistency Index is a Normal distribution, which has been claimed in the Previous literature. Accordingly, we suggest using so called K-index calcu1ated based on the concept of cumulative distribution function lather than based on that of arithmetic mean because the probabilistic distribution cannot be assumed to be a Normal distribution. We interpret the simulation results by comparing them with the suggestion of Saaty. Our results show that using Saaty＇s value could be too generous when the dimension of the matrix is 3 and strict over 4. Finally, we propose new criteria for measuring the response consistency in AHP.
최형림, 김현수, 박영재, 박병주, 이경전, “인터넷상의 가상생산 기반 부품판매 에이전트 개발”, 경영정보학연구, 12(4):193-213, 2002. (PDF) in Korean
The sales activity of most of small manufacturing companies is based on orders of buyers. The process of promotion, negotiation, receipt and selection of orders of the manufacturers is closely coupled with the load status of the production lines. The decision on whether to accept an order or not, or the selection of optimal order set among excessive orders is entirely dependent on the schedule of production lines. However, in the real world, since the production scheduling activity is mainly performed by human experts, most of small manufacturers are suffer from being unable to meet due dates, lack of rapid decision on the acceptance of new order. Recently, Internet based Electronic Commerce is recognized as one of the alternatives for strengthening sales power of small and medium companies. However, small and medium manufacturers can’t adjust properly to the new environment because they are in short of money, personnel, and technology. To cope with this problem, this paper deals with development of part sales agent coupled with virtual manufacturing in Internet environment that consist of selection agent, advertisement agent, selection agent, negotiation agent, and virtual manufacturing system. This paper develops a time-bounded negotiation mechanism for small and medium manufacturers in agent-based automated negotiation between customers and negotiation agents. Furthermore, to select optimal order set maximized profit, we first formulate the order selection problem with mixed integer programming, but the computation time of IP is not acceptable for real world scale problem. To overcome this problem and dynamic nature of virtual manufacturing, we suggest a genetic algorithm approach, which shows a reasonable computation time for real world case and good incremental problem solving capability.
이경전, 장용식, 최형림, 김현수, 박영재, 박병주, “복잡한 의사결정과 협상 환경을 위한 에이전트 기반 시스템: 가상생산 응용”, Information Systems Review, 4(2):223-236, 2002. (PDF) in Korean
In an agent-based system, each agent has its own decision making capability and competes, cooperates, and communicates each other with an agent interface. Virtual manufacturing has characteristics as a typical application area of agent-based system: complex and time-bound decision making and negotiation. The time-boundness influences the choice of decision making models and design of protocols for internal and external negotiation. In this paper, we provide a case study which suggests a time-bound framework for external and internal negotiation between the agents for virtual manufacturing environment. We illustrate decision making model selection strategy and the system architecture of the agent-based system for the complex and time-bound environment.
이경전, MMORPG와 인공지능, 정보과학회지 23(6), 2005. (PDF) in Korean
오재섭, 이경전, 김재경, 유비쿼터스 사회연결망관리 서비스 모델 설계 분석: u-구인 구직 서비스 모델을 중심으로, Information Systems Review, 13(1), 2011. (PDF) in Korean
Although online social network services widely used in human networking and recruiting industries, it is showing off its limitations in followings-it’s hard to reach the status of seamless connection between offline and online; the incompletion and low credibility of the information came from non-face-to-face profile exchange; and the restraint of user autonomy due to centralized control. This paper defines the ubiquitous social network management which enables the seamless real-time face-to-face social interactions of the users based on WPAN (Wireless Personal Area Network) who share the same interest in real word and deduces a ubiquitous social network management framework based on it. As an instance of ubiquitous social network management, u-Recruiting service model will be designed and analyzed. The Analysis using the business model will be followed by the possible scenario of service model. The role, value proposition and potential benefits of the each participants in this service model and will be given as well. In order to evaluate relative advantages of the model suggested by this study, 6 cases will be compared.
오재섭, 이경전, 사회연결망 관리의 개념 연구와 사회연결망관리 프레임워크 개발, Internet and Information Security, 2(1), 2011. (PDF) in Korean
Social network service have shown dramatic growth, especially in the personal connection management, contents distribution, marketing, recruiting and software development sectors. The representative examples of thriving online social network services include Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter and MySpace. Recently, social network services are being considered beyond a social network among individual users, and are being reviewed from business perspectives. Businesses focus on job recommendations, contents distribution, advertising and marketing, and the potential influences and opportunities provided by the social network services in terms of business are continuously growing. In this context, individuals and businesses require in-depth and broad concepts for building closer relations with acquaintances and customers through related processes and resources, To this end, this study suggests a social network management framework that provides a basic understanding of social network management from process theory and resource-based view. This study also evaluates the social network management framework based on the evaluation criteria for conceptual frameworks.
정민규, 김혜경, 최일영, 이경전, 김재경, 유아교육 박람회에서 데이터마이닝 기법을 이용한 전시 관람 행동 패턴 분석, 지능정보연구, 17(2), pp. 77-96, 2011. (PDF) in Korean
An exhibition is defined as market events for specific duration to present exhibitors’ main products to business or private visitors, and it plays a key role as effective marketing channels. As the importance of exhibition is getting more and more, domestic exhibition industry has achieved such a great quantitative growth. But, In contrast to the quantitative growth of domestic exhibition industry, the qualitative growth of Exhibition has not achieved competent growth. In order to improve the quality of exhibition, we need to understand the preference or behavior characteristics of visitors and to increase the level of visitors’ attention and satisfaction through the understanding of visitors. So, in this paper, we used the observation survey method which is a kind of field research to understand visitors and collect the real data for the analysis of behavior pattern. And this research proposed the following methodology framework consisting of three steps. First step is to select a suitable exhibition to apply for our method. Second step is to implement the observation survey method. And we collect the real data for further analysis. In this paper, we conducted the observation survey method to obtain the real data of the KIDS & EDU EXPO for Children in SETEC. Our methodology was conducted on 160 visitors and 78 booths from November 4th to 6th in 2010. And, the last step is to analyze the record data through observation. In this step, we analyze the feature of exhibition using Demographic Characteristics collected by observation survey method at first. And then we analyze the individual booth features by the records of visited booth. Through the analysis of individual booth features, we can figure out what kind of events attract the attention of visitors and what kind of marketing activities affect the behavior pattern of visitors. But, since previous research considered only individual features influenced by exhibition, the research about the correlation among features is not performed much. So, in this research, additional analysis is carried out to supplement the existing research with data mining techniques. And we analyze the relation among booths using data mining techniques to know behavior patterns of visitors. Among data mining techniques, we make use of two data mining techniques, such as clustering analysis and ARM(Association Rule Mining) analysis. In clustering analysis, we use K-means algorithm to figure out the correlation among booths. Through data mining techniques, we figure out that there are two important features to affect visitors’ behavior patterns in exhibition. One is the geographical features of booths. The other is the exhibit contents of booths. Those features are considered when the organizer of exhibition plans next exhibition. Therefore, the results of our analysis are expected to provide guideline to understanding visitors and some valuable insights for the exhibition from the earlier phases of exhibition planning. Also, this research would be a good way to increase the quality of visitor satisfaction. Visitors’ movement paths, booth location, and distances between each booth are considered to plan next exhibition in advance. This research was conducted at the KIDS & EDU EXPO for Children in SETEC(Seoul Trade Exhibition & Convention), but it has some constraints to be applied directly to other exhibitions. Also, the results were derived from a limited number of data samples. In order to obtain more accurate and reliable results, it is necessary to conduct more experiments based on larger data samples and exhibitions on a variety of genres.
이경전, 홍성우, NFC 기반 세렌디피티 시스템 설계, 지능정보연구, 17(4), 2011.(PDF) in Korean
The world of ubiquitous computing is one in which we will be surrounded by an ever-richer set of networked devices and services. Especially, mobile phone now becomes one of the key issues in ubiquitous computing environments. Mobile phones have been infecting our normal lives more thoroughly, and are the fastest technology in human history that has been adapted to people. In Korea, the number of mobile phones registered to the telecom company, is more than the population of the country. Last year, the numbers of mobile phone sold are many times more than the number of personal computer sold. The new advanced technology of mobile phone is now becoming the most concern on every field of technologies. The mix of wireless communication technology (wifi) and mobile phone (smart phone) has made a new world of ubiquitous computing and people can always access to the network anywhere, in high speed, and easily. In such a world, people cannot expect to have available to us specific applications that allow them to accomplish every conceivable combination of information that they might wish. They are willing to have information they want at easy way, and fast way, compared to the world we had before, where we had to have a desktop, cable connection, limited application, and limited speed to achieve what they want. Instead, now people can believe that many of their interactions will be through highly generic tools that allow end-user discovery, configuration, interconnection, and control of the devices around them. Serendipity is an application of the architecture that will help people to solve a concern of achieving their information. The word ‘serendipity’, introduced to scientific fields in eighteenth century, is the meaning of making new discoveries by accidents and sagacity. By combining to the field of ubiquitous computing and smart phone, it will change the way of achieving the information. Serendipity may enable professional practitioners to function more effectively in the unpredictable, dynamic environment that informs the reality of information seeking. This paper designs the Serendipity Service based on NFC (Near Field Communication) technology. When users of NFC smart phone get information and services by touching the NFC tags, serendipity service will be core services which will give an unexpected but valuable finding. This paper proposes the architecture, scenario and the interface of serendipity service using tag touch data, serendipity cases, serendipity rule base and user profile.