A near field communication adoption and its impact on Expo visitors’ behavior

Han, H., Park, A., Chung, N., & Lee, K. J. (2016). A near field communication adoption and its impact on Expo visitors’ behavior. International Journal of Information Management, 36(6), 1328-1339. (link)

Utilization of advanced smart technologies and online-to-offline/offline-to-online marketing has resulted in the adoption of near field communication (NFC) in many expositions (Expos). The objective of NFC is to enhance and revitalize the Expo experience of visitors. Thus, this study focused on the motivation-opportunity-ability framework and satisfaction transfer of visitors who process information using NFC to understand NFC reuse intention and Expo loyalty. We hypothesized that information quality (motivation), organizational support for using NFC at an Expo (opportunity), and self-efficacy (ability) influence NFC value and NFC satisfaction. NFC value would influence satisfaction with NFC and with the Expo, which then influences NFC reuse intention and Expo loyalty, respectively. A survey of 309 visitors at the Expo showed that information quality and organizational support influenced perceived value and satisfaction of NFC. Self-efficacy influenced the perceived value of but not the satisfaction with NFC. Further, the perceived NFC affected NFC reuse intention and Expo loyalty through satisfaction with NFC and satisfaction with the Expo, respectively. This study thus expands the scope of study on NFC by demonstrating the need for utilization of NFC and by empirically demonstrating the importance of NFC.

Customer-driven smart and sustainable interaction in convention: Nestle’s IoT adoption case

Park, A., Jun, J. H., & Lee, K. J. (2017). Customer-driven smart and sustainable interaction in convention. 한국지능정보시스템학회 학술대회논문집, 134-135. (link)


Services based on the IoT technologies have emerged in various business environments. To enhance service quality for convention, maximize experience of attendees and develop sustainable service, this study applies IoT technology for stakeholders of convention.

In this paper, we seek to answer the following research questions: (1) What is the notion of sustainability and smartness in tourism field? (chapter 2-1) (2) What is the customer-driven interaction? (chapter 2-2) (3) What are the appropriate technologies to meet sustainable/smart service and the needs of smart convention and how to apply the technology? (chapter 2-2 and 3) (4) What do stakeholders such as companies and customers gain from sustainable and smart service for smart convention? (chapter 4)

To accomplish the objectives of the study, we took five phases of action research framework. In diagnosing phase, through interviews, observations, and literature studies, there searchers identify current issues and requirements for convention. In action planning phase, through the discussion with the practitioners of the convention, we have selected and arranged services for solving the problems. In action taking phase, smart buttons were installed in the COEX (Interaction convention place), we collected data during the convention period. In evaluation phase, we present the results and value of data. Finally, in specifying learning phase, the researchers summarized the benefits of each stakeholder.

The contribution of this paper is in four ways. First, the notion of sustainability was redefined by including not only socio-cultural, economy and environmental thinking but also the realms of customer-driven! interaction.

Second, this study proposed and constructed a new type of smart service with IoT for smart convention. Third, this research verified that benefits of sustainable and smart service. Finally, this can be used as an example of how conventions can find opportunities using new technologies.

An application of the loT technology based smart button was conducted for convention service, and the development and evaluation results are aligned lo action research framework including diagnosing, action planning, action taking, evaluation, and specifying learning phases. At the first and two phases, various difficulties and problems of the smart convention were diagnosed through interview with practitioners and service models were designed for solving the problems. Mobile service and appropriate IoT technology were discussed and applied to the convention space by installing smart button at the third phase. At the fourth, we derived in the role of Internet of things based mobile technology for smart convention and evaluated results of smart convention service in the various perspective. Finally, we proved value of mobile technology as the omni channel service through data analysis.

Development and Evaluation of Omni Channel Service based on Internet of Things for Hospitals

Park, A., & Lee, K. J. (2017). Development and Evaluation of Omni channel service based on Internet of Things for Hospitals. Development(link)


Omni-channel services based on the Internet of Things (IoT) technologies have emerged in various business environments. To enhance hospital’s service quality and maximize benefits as well as provide seamless customer experience, this study applies IoT technology based on NFC, iBeacon(inclusing wearable devices) as an omnichannel service for integration of online and offline channel in hospital. First, we develop services based on IoT technology for omni channel of the hospital. Then, we will evaluate omni channel services from a CRM and BPI point of view through interview.
To develop the IoT technology based on NFC, iBeacon, we conducted action research. The five phases in action research framework research include diagnosing, action planning, action taking, evaluation, and specifying learning phases. In this study, we focus on action planning, action taking, evaluation. At the action planning phases, eleven service models based on IoT technology for omni channel for hospital were designed. Service models were applied to the hospital by installing tags and beacons at the third phase. At the fourth phases, service models issues and knowledge on the whole application process were derived and summarized with respect to CRM (Customer Relationship Management) and BPI (Business Process Innovation) of hospital.


A Case of NFC-based Exhibition Support System for Analyzing Visitors’ POB(Point of Behaviors)

최명희, 전정호, 강희구, 이경전, “근접 무선 통신 기반 박람회 지원 시스템 구축 및 관람객 행동 데이터 분석 사례”, Information Systems Review, 15(2), 111-127, 2013 (PDF) in Korean


본 논문은 근접 무선 통신 기술(NFC)을 적용하여 박람회 지원 시스템을 구축한 사례와 관람객 행동 데이터(POB: Point of Behaviors)의 분석을 수행한 사례를 소개한다. NFC 기술이 박람회 공간에 적용됨에 따라 관람객은 휴대폰을 통해 다양한 정보를 획득하고 저장, 관리함으로써, 새로운 경험을 하게 되고, 전시자는 NFC 시스템을 통해 획득한 관람객에 대한 데이터 수집 및 분석이 가능하게 되어 관람객과의 CRM 기회를 갖게 된다. 본 연구에서는 ‘2013 내나라 여행 박람회’에 적용된 근접 무선 통신 기반 박람회 지원 시스템의 구축 내용을 소개하고, 수집된 NFC 태그 터치 데이터를 기반으로 날짜 및 부스 별 관람객 수, 관람객의 박람회 체류시간, 관람객 방문 부스 등의 분석을 수행하고, 박람회 현장에서 설문 조사를 실시하여 인구통계학적 정보, 박람회 만족도 등의 데이터를 수집하여 터치 데이터와 교차 분석을 수행한다. 또한 연관 규칙 분석 기법을 이용하여 관람객들이 방문한 부스들 간의 연결 관계를 분석한다.

A Case of NFC-based Exhibition Support System for Analyzing Visitors’ POB(Point of Behaviors)


This research introduces a case of NFC (Near Field Communication) – based exhibition support system for analyzing visitors’ POB (Point of Behavior) data gathered from the system. The application of NFC technology to an exhibition space allows visitors new experiences of exposition and exhibitors to collect and analyze data about behaviors of visitors. The NFC-based exhibition support system is applied to the ‘Korea Travel Expo 2013.’ The visitors’ behaviors are analyzed based on collected NFC tag touch data and association rules among booths are extracted. Furthermore, the tag touch data are integrated with the survey data for catching the demographics-based implications.


Design of Serendipity Service Based on Near Field Communication Technology

이경전, 홍성우, NFC 기반 세렌디피티 시스템 설계, 지능정보연구, 17(4), 2011.(PDF) in Korean


The world of ubiquitous computing is one in which we will be surrounded by an ever-richer set of networked devices and services. Especially, mobile phone now becomes one of the key issues in ubiquitous computing environments. Mobile phones have been infecting our normal lives more thoroughly, and are the fastest technology in human history that has been adapted to people. In Korea, the number of mobile phones registered to the telecom company, is more than the population of the country. Last year, the numbers of mobile phone sold are many times more than the number of personal computer sold. The new advanced technology of mobile phone is now becoming the most concern on every field of technologies. The mix of wireless communication technology (wifi) and mobile phone (smart phone) has made a new world of ubiquitous computing and people can always access to the network anywhere, in high speed, and easily. In such a world, people cannot expect to have available to us specific applications that allow them to accomplish every conceivable combination of information that they might wish. They are willing to have information they want at easy way, and fast way, compared to the world we had before, where we had to have a desktop, cable connection, limited application, and limited speed to achieve what they want. Instead, now people can believe that many of their interactions will be through highly generic tools that allow end-user discovery, configuration, interconnection, and control of the devices around them. Serendipity is an application of the architecture that will help people to solve a concern of achieving their information. The word ‘serendipity’, introduced to scientific fields in eighteenth century, is the meaning of making new discoveries by accidents and sagacity. By combining to the field of ubiquitous computing and smart phone, it will change the way of achieving the information. Serendipity may enable professional practitioners to function more effectively in the unpredictable, dynamic environment that informs the reality of information seeking. This paper designs the Serendipity Service based on NFC (Near Field Communication) technology. When users of NFC smart phone get information and services by touching the NFC tags, serendipity service will be core services which will give an unexpected but valuable finding. This paper proposes the architecture, scenario and the interface of serendipity service using tag touch data, serendipity cases, serendipity rule base and user profile.

Design and Analysis of Ubiquitous Customer Relationship Management System Based on Near Field Communication

이경전, 전정호, 고도 정보 연계 사회의 구축을 위한 SPB 패러다임, 한국IT서비스학회지, 11(2): 131-146, 2012 (PDF) in Korean


This research aims to design and analyze a ubiquitous customer relationship management system based on near field communication which can be applied to stores in off-line environment. The existing customer relationship management system has been used mainly for stores in off-line environment to issue a royalty card, to stamp a seal on the purchase goods, and to manage the history of customers’ visits and purchases. But, the existing system has two weaknesses; it makes difficult for a store manger not only to acquire a wealth of customer data but also to systematically manage the acquired data. In particular, the effectiveness and efficiency of the royalty card are questioned when a customer makes purchases in the store in that the customer frequently does not carry it or loses it. So, this research suggests a ubiquitous customer relationship management system where a tag for near field communications is attached to a store in off-line environment; a store manager can collect and manage easily customer’s dada and customers can seamlessly acquire store’s information. To do this, this research conducts the followings. First, we review the previous researches of customer relationship management to examine the concept of ubiquitous customer relationship management. Second, from the examination, we draw the factors to be considered in ubiquitous customer relationship management system based on near field communication. Third, we propose a scenario where the suggested system is used. Fourth, we analyze the participants’ values and the process that will be used for the suggested system. Finally, we discuss the possibility of the application of this system to real business environment from various viewpoints.