Development and Evaluation of Omni Channel Service based on Internet of Things for Hospitals

Park, A., & Lee, K. J. (2017). Development and Evaluation of Omni channel service based on Internet of Things for Hospitals. Development(link)


Omni-channel services based on the Internet of Things (IoT) technologies have emerged in various business environments. To enhance hospital’s service quality and maximize benefits as well as provide seamless customer experience, this study applies IoT technology based on NFC, iBeacon(inclusing wearable devices) as an omnichannel service for integration of online and offline channel in hospital. First, we develop services based on IoT technology for omni channel of the hospital. Then, we will evaluate omni channel services from a CRM and BPI point of view through interview.
To develop the IoT technology based on NFC, iBeacon, we conducted action research. The five phases in action research framework research include diagnosing, action planning, action taking, evaluation, and specifying learning phases. In this study, we focus on action planning, action taking, evaluation. At the action planning phases, eleven service models based on IoT technology for omni channel for hospital were designed. Service models were applied to the hospital by installing tags and beacons at the third phase. At the fourth phases, service models issues and knowledge on the whole application process were derived and summarized with respect to CRM (Customer Relationship Management) and BPI (Business Process Innovation) of hospital.


A Study on NFC Technology Utilization and Application Cases in Museum/Gallery

이경전, 최명희, 권선희, 전정호, “박물관 및 미술관의 근접 무선 통신 기술 적용 사례와 활용 방안 연구”, 문화예술경영학연구, 6(1), 29-51, 2013, (PDF) in Korean


본 연구는 박물관 및 미술관에 NFC 기술을 적용하여, 기존 실세계 전시 공간을 새로운 미디어로 변화시키고자 하는 전시 공간 사업자에게 의미 있는 시사점을 제시하는 것을 목적으로 한다. 실세계 공간에 NFC 기술을 적용하는 것은 실세계 공간을 미디어로 변화시키는 것을 의미하는데, 미디어는 하나의 객체와 다른 객체를 이어주는 역할을 수행하는 것을 말한다. 즉, 기존 전시 공간에 NFC 기술이 적용됨에 따라 실세계 존시 공간의 객체와 온라인 공간의 디지털 콘텐츠 사이의 이음매 없는 연결이 가능해지며, 이를 기반으로 실세계 전시 공간 자체가 미디어의 역할을 수행하게 되는 것이다. 본 연구에서는 실세계 공간의 미디어화를 위한 기술로서의 NFC 기술을 소개하고, NFC 기술이 적용된 국내외 박물관 및 미술관 사례를 검토하며, 박물관 및 미술관에 NFC 기술을 적용한 경험을 공유한다. 그리고 다양한 정보 획득, 새로운 형태의 상거래의 발생, 관람 경험의 용이한 기록 및 공유, 전시 공간의 새로운 마케팅 채널 확보, CRM 도구로서의 활용 등을 박물관 및 미술관의 NFC 기술 적용 의의로 제시한다.

A Study on NFC Technology Utilization and Application Cases in Museum/Gallery



The main purpose of this research is to propose some meaningful implications for exhibition space operators who want to make the conventional exhibition space into media by taking advantage of the NFC technology. Applying NFC technology into  the real world means changing real world into media. which is considered to act as a medium that links one subject to another. In other words, if NFC technology is applied into the conventional exhibition space, the seamless connection between objects in the exhibition space and digital information in the online environment is realized and based on this, the exhibition space itself plays the role of media. In this research, we introduce the NFC technology to make real world into media, review cases regarding NFC-based museums and galleries, and share our experiences in the application of NFC technology into such exhibition spaces. Moreover we propose the significance in applying NFC technology into museums and galleries, for example, obtaining various types of information, new forms of commercial transaction, easier recording and sharing of viewing experiences, securing new marketing channel, and utilization of the technology as a CRM tool.

A Case of NFC-based Exhibition Support System for Analyzing Visitors’ POB(Point of Behaviors)

최명희, 전정호, 강희구, 이경전, “근접 무선 통신 기반 박람회 지원 시스템 구축 및 관람객 행동 데이터 분석 사례”, Information Systems Review, 15(2), 111-127, 2013 (PDF) in Korean


본 논문은 근접 무선 통신 기술(NFC)을 적용하여 박람회 지원 시스템을 구축한 사례와 관람객 행동 데이터(POB: Point of Behaviors)의 분석을 수행한 사례를 소개한다. NFC 기술이 박람회 공간에 적용됨에 따라 관람객은 휴대폰을 통해 다양한 정보를 획득하고 저장, 관리함으로써, 새로운 경험을 하게 되고, 전시자는 NFC 시스템을 통해 획득한 관람객에 대한 데이터 수집 및 분석이 가능하게 되어 관람객과의 CRM 기회를 갖게 된다. 본 연구에서는 ‘2013 내나라 여행 박람회’에 적용된 근접 무선 통신 기반 박람회 지원 시스템의 구축 내용을 소개하고, 수집된 NFC 태그 터치 데이터를 기반으로 날짜 및 부스 별 관람객 수, 관람객의 박람회 체류시간, 관람객 방문 부스 등의 분석을 수행하고, 박람회 현장에서 설문 조사를 실시하여 인구통계학적 정보, 박람회 만족도 등의 데이터를 수집하여 터치 데이터와 교차 분석을 수행한다. 또한 연관 규칙 분석 기법을 이용하여 관람객들이 방문한 부스들 간의 연결 관계를 분석한다.

A Case of NFC-based Exhibition Support System for Analyzing Visitors’ POB(Point of Behaviors)


This research introduces a case of NFC (Near Field Communication) – based exhibition support system for analyzing visitors’ POB (Point of Behavior) data gathered from the system. The application of NFC technology to an exhibition space allows visitors new experiences of exposition and exhibitors to collect and analyze data about behaviors of visitors. The NFC-based exhibition support system is applied to the ‘Korea Travel Expo 2013.’ The visitors’ behaviors are analyzed based on collected NFC tag touch data and association rules among booths are extracted. Furthermore, the tag touch data are integrated with the survey data for catching the demographics-based implications.


NFC-based Smartwork Service Model Design

박아름, 강민수, 전정호, 이경전, “NFC 기반의 스마트워크 서비스 모델 설계”, 지능정보연구,19(2):157~176, 2103.

(PDF) in Korean


Since Korean government announced ‘Smartwork promotion strategy’ in 2010, Korean firms and
government organizations have started to adopt smartwork. However, the smartwork has been implemented
only in a few of large enterprises and government organizations rather than SMEs (small and medium
enterprises). In USA, both Yahoo! and BestBuy have stopped their flexible work because of its reported
low productivity and job loafing problems. In addition, according to the literature on smartwork, we
could draw obstacles of smartwork adoption and categorize them into the three types: institutional,
organizational, and technological. The first category of smartwork adoption obstacles, institutional, include
the difficulties of smartwork performance evaluation metrics, the lack of readiness of organizational
processes, limitation of smartwork types and models, lack of employee participation in smartwork adoption
procedure, high cost of building smartwork system, and insufficiency of government support. The second
category, organizational, includes limitation of the organization hierarchy, wrong perception of employees
and employers, a difficulty in close collaboration, low productivity with remote coworkers, insufficient
understanding on remote working, and lack of training about smartwork. The third category, technological,
obstacles include security concern of mobile work, lack of specialized solution, and lack of adoption
and operation know-how.
To overcome the current problems of smartwork in reality and the reported obstacles in literature,
we suggest a novel smartwork service model based on NFC(Near Field Communication). This paper
suggests NFC-based Smartwork Service Model composed of NFC-based Smartworker networking service
and NFC-based Smartwork space management service.
NFC-based smartworker networking service is comprised of NFC-based communication/SNS service
and NFC-based recruiting/job seeking service. NFC-based communication/SNS Service Model supplements

the key shortcomings that existing smartwork service model has. By connecting to existing legacy system
of a company through NFC tags and systems, the low productivity and the difficulty of collaboration
and attendance management can be overcome since managers can get work processing information,
work time information and work space information of employees and employees can do real-time
communication with coworkers and get location information of coworkers. Shortly, this service model
has features such as affordable system cost, provision of location-based information, and possibility
of knowledge accumulation. NFC-based recruiting/job-seeking service provides new value by linking
NFC tag service and sharing economy sites. This service model has features such as easiness of service
attachment and removal, efficient space-based work provision, easy search of location-based recruiting/
job-seeking information, and system flexibility. This service model combines advantages of sharing
economy sites with the advantages of NFC. By cooperation with sharing economy sites, the model
can provide recruiters with human resource who finds not only long-term works but also short-term
works. Additionally, SMEs (Small Medium-sized Enterprises) can easily find job seeker by attaching
NFC tags to any spaces at which human resource with qualification may be located. In short, this
service model helps efficient human resource distribution by providing location of job hunters and
job applicants.
NFC-based smartwork space management service can promote smartwork by linking NFC tags
attached to the work space and existing smartwork system. This service has features such as low cost,
provision of indoor and outdoor location information, and customized service. In particular, this model
can help small company adopt smartwork system because it is light-weight system and cost-effective
compared to existing smartwork system.
This paper proposes the scenarios of the service models, the roles and incentives of the participants,
and the comparative analysis. The superiority of NFC-based smartwork service model is shown by
comparing and analyzing the new service models and the existing service models. The service model
can expand scope of enterprises and organizations that adopt smartwork and expand the scope of employees
that take advantages of smartwork.


Design of Ubiquitous Referral Marketing A Business Model and Method

이경전, 이종철, 유비쿼터스 구전 마케팅 시나리오와 비즈니스 모델 개발, 한국지능정보시스템학회 논문지, 12(1):163-174, 2006. (PDF) in Korean


This paper provides a corporation’s marketing strategy under a ubiquitous computing environment: a WOM(word-of-mouth) marketing using RFID(Radio Frequency Identification) technology and a business model which facilitates the word-of-mouth marketing. To this end, we examine the word-of-mouth communication effects on consumers’ life, changes in corporations’ attitude toward word-of-mouth marketing, and the difficulties that corporations have in conducting word-of-mouth marketing. The business model this paper suggests makes seamless business-to-consumer and consumer-to-consumer networking possible using the RFID technology and facilitates the word-of-mouth marketing through incentive system of each economic player.

Tag-based Evaluation Model for Economic Feasibility Analysis of Mobile RFID System in Ubiquitous Space

이경전, 최형광, 전정호, 유비쿼터스 공간 구축을 위한 모바일 RFID 시스템의 경제성 평가에 대한 연구: 태그 기반 평가 모델을 중심으로, IT서비스학회지, 10(3), 2011. (PDF) in Korean


It is important issue how to evaluate the economic feasibility of computing factors in the real world when we build ubiquitous spaces. In this paper, we propose a simple model that can evaluate the economic feasibility of mobile RFID-based ubiquitous computing system which enables seamless communication between offline and online via embedded computing factors in the real world. To achieve this, we explore the meaning of mobile RFID system, the difference between our research and extant researches concerning the evaluation of economic feasibility in RFID system, and propose the so-called ‘Tag-based Evaluation Model’ (TEM) which is an evaluation model to access the economic feasibility of mobile RFID systems. We also analyze the TEM via simulation cases based on proposed model and discuss the future of TEM.

Design of Serendipity Service Based on Near Field Communication Technology

이경전, 홍성우, NFC 기반 세렌디피티 시스템 설계, 지능정보연구, 17(4), 2011.(PDF) in Korean


The world of ubiquitous computing is one in which we will be surrounded by an ever-richer set of networked devices and services. Especially, mobile phone now becomes one of the key issues in ubiquitous computing environments. Mobile phones have been infecting our normal lives more thoroughly, and are the fastest technology in human history that has been adapted to people. In Korea, the number of mobile phones registered to the telecom company, is more than the population of the country. Last year, the numbers of mobile phone sold are many times more than the number of personal computer sold. The new advanced technology of mobile phone is now becoming the most concern on every field of technologies. The mix of wireless communication technology (wifi) and mobile phone (smart phone) has made a new world of ubiquitous computing and people can always access to the network anywhere, in high speed, and easily. In such a world, people cannot expect to have available to us specific applications that allow them to accomplish every conceivable combination of information that they might wish. They are willing to have information they want at easy way, and fast way, compared to the world we had before, where we had to have a desktop, cable connection, limited application, and limited speed to achieve what they want. Instead, now people can believe that many of their interactions will be through highly generic tools that allow end-user discovery, configuration, interconnection, and control of the devices around them. Serendipity is an application of the architecture that will help people to solve a concern of achieving their information. The word ‘serendipity’, introduced to scientific fields in eighteenth century, is the meaning of making new discoveries by accidents and sagacity. By combining to the field of ubiquitous computing and smart phone, it will change the way of achieving the information. Serendipity may enable professional practitioners to function more effectively in the unpredictable, dynamic environment that informs the reality of information seeking. This paper designs the Serendipity Service based on NFC (Near Field Communication) technology. When users of NFC smart phone get information and services by touching the NFC tags, serendipity service will be core services which will give an unexpected but valuable finding. This paper proposes the architecture, scenario and the interface of serendipity service using tag touch data, serendipity cases, serendipity rule base and user profile.

Design and Analysis of Ubiquitous Customer Relationship Management System Based on Near Field Communication

이경전, 전정호, 고도 정보 연계 사회의 구축을 위한 SPB 패러다임, 한국IT서비스학회지, 11(2): 131-146, 2012 (PDF) in Korean


This research aims to design and analyze a ubiquitous customer relationship management system based on near field communication which can be applied to stores in off-line environment. The existing customer relationship management system has been used mainly for stores in off-line environment to issue a royalty card, to stamp a seal on the purchase goods, and to manage the history of customers’ visits and purchases. But, the existing system has two weaknesses; it makes difficult for a store manger not only to acquire a wealth of customer data but also to systematically manage the acquired data. In particular, the effectiveness and efficiency of the royalty card are questioned when a customer makes purchases in the store in that the customer frequently does not carry it or loses it. So, this research suggests a ubiquitous customer relationship management system where a tag for near field communications is attached to a store in off-line environment; a store manager can collect and manage easily customer’s dada and customers can seamlessly acquire store’s information. To do this, this research conducts the followings. First, we review the previous researches of customer relationship management to examine the concept of ubiquitous customer relationship management. Second, from the examination, we draw the factors to be considered in ubiquitous customer relationship management system based on near field communication. Third, we propose a scenario where the suggested system is used. Fourth, we analyze the participants’ values and the process that will be used for the suggested system. Finally, we discuss the possibility of the application of this system to real business environment from various viewpoints.

SPB(Seamlessness-Privacy-Benefit) Paradigm for Construction of Highly-Connected Information Society

이경전, 전정호, 고도 정보 연계 사회의 구축을 위한 SPB 패러다임, 한국IT서비스학회지, 11(2): 131-146, 2012 (PDF) in Korean


The purpose of this research is two-fold : (1) we propose the paradigm to construct a connected information society according to a judgment where a coming information society will evolve into highly-connected information society having “seamlessness” as a keyword, and (2) we draw guidelines to construct infrastructures and establish systems and business models of highly-connected information society based on suggested paradigm. To achieve this, this research conducts the followings. First, we suggest reasons why a coming information society can be appropriate to be considered as highly-connected information society by examining two perspectives on the coming information society. Second, we explain the definition and characteristics of highly-connected information society and propose the SPB paradigm. Third, we analyze the utility of SPB paradigm by evaluating practices. Finally, we suggest four strategies to construct highly-connected information society based on advanced research findings and future research directions.