NFC-based Smartwork Service Model Design

박아름, 강민수, 전정호, 이경전, “NFC 기반의 스마트워크 서비스 모델 설계”, 지능정보연구,19(2):157~176, 2103.

(PDF) in Korean


Since Korean government announced ‘Smartwork promotion strategy’ in 2010, Korean firms and
government organizations have started to adopt smartwork. However, the smartwork has been implemented
only in a few of large enterprises and government organizations rather than SMEs (small and medium
enterprises). In USA, both Yahoo! and BestBuy have stopped their flexible work because of its reported
low productivity and job loafing problems. In addition, according to the literature on smartwork, we
could draw obstacles of smartwork adoption and categorize them into the three types: institutional,
organizational, and technological. The first category of smartwork adoption obstacles, institutional, include
the difficulties of smartwork performance evaluation metrics, the lack of readiness of organizational
processes, limitation of smartwork types and models, lack of employee participation in smartwork adoption
procedure, high cost of building smartwork system, and insufficiency of government support. The second
category, organizational, includes limitation of the organization hierarchy, wrong perception of employees
and employers, a difficulty in close collaboration, low productivity with remote coworkers, insufficient
understanding on remote working, and lack of training about smartwork. The third category, technological,
obstacles include security concern of mobile work, lack of specialized solution, and lack of adoption
and operation know-how.
To overcome the current problems of smartwork in reality and the reported obstacles in literature,
we suggest a novel smartwork service model based on NFC(Near Field Communication). This paper
suggests NFC-based Smartwork Service Model composed of NFC-based Smartworker networking service
and NFC-based Smartwork space management service.
NFC-based smartworker networking service is comprised of NFC-based communication/SNS service
and NFC-based recruiting/job seeking service. NFC-based communication/SNS Service Model supplements

the key shortcomings that existing smartwork service model has. By connecting to existing legacy system
of a company through NFC tags and systems, the low productivity and the difficulty of collaboration
and attendance management can be overcome since managers can get work processing information,
work time information and work space information of employees and employees can do real-time
communication with coworkers and get location information of coworkers. Shortly, this service model
has features such as affordable system cost, provision of location-based information, and possibility
of knowledge accumulation. NFC-based recruiting/job-seeking service provides new value by linking
NFC tag service and sharing economy sites. This service model has features such as easiness of service
attachment and removal, efficient space-based work provision, easy search of location-based recruiting/
job-seeking information, and system flexibility. This service model combines advantages of sharing
economy sites with the advantages of NFC. By cooperation with sharing economy sites, the model
can provide recruiters with human resource who finds not only long-term works but also short-term
works. Additionally, SMEs (Small Medium-sized Enterprises) can easily find job seeker by attaching
NFC tags to any spaces at which human resource with qualification may be located. In short, this
service model helps efficient human resource distribution by providing location of job hunters and
job applicants.
NFC-based smartwork space management service can promote smartwork by linking NFC tags
attached to the work space and existing smartwork system. This service has features such as low cost,
provision of indoor and outdoor location information, and customized service. In particular, this model
can help small company adopt smartwork system because it is light-weight system and cost-effective
compared to existing smartwork system.
This paper proposes the scenarios of the service models, the roles and incentives of the participants,
and the comparative analysis. The superiority of NFC-based smartwork service model is shown by
comparing and analyzing the new service models and the existing service models. The service model
can expand scope of enterprises and organizations that adopt smartwork and expand the scope of employees
that take advantages of smartwork.


Design and Analysis of Ubiquitous Customer Relationship Management System Based on Near Field Communication

이경전, 전정호, 고도 정보 연계 사회의 구축을 위한 SPB 패러다임, 한국IT서비스학회지, 11(2): 131-146, 2012 (PDF) in Korean


This research aims to design and analyze a ubiquitous customer relationship management system based on near field communication which can be applied to stores in off-line environment. The existing customer relationship management system has been used mainly for stores in off-line environment to issue a royalty card, to stamp a seal on the purchase goods, and to manage the history of customers’ visits and purchases. But, the existing system has two weaknesses; it makes difficult for a store manger not only to acquire a wealth of customer data but also to systematically manage the acquired data. In particular, the effectiveness and efficiency of the royalty card are questioned when a customer makes purchases in the store in that the customer frequently does not carry it or loses it. So, this research suggests a ubiquitous customer relationship management system where a tag for near field communications is attached to a store in off-line environment; a store manager can collect and manage easily customer’s dada and customers can seamlessly acquire store’s information. To do this, this research conducts the followings. First, we review the previous researches of customer relationship management to examine the concept of ubiquitous customer relationship management. Second, from the examination, we draw the factors to be considered in ubiquitous customer relationship management system based on near field communication. Third, we propose a scenario where the suggested system is used. Fourth, we analyze the participants’ values and the process that will be used for the suggested system. Finally, we discuss the possibility of the application of this system to real business environment from various viewpoints.

Design of a RFID-Based Ubiquitous Comparison Shopping System

Lee, K. Seo, Y., Design of a RFID-Based Ubiquitous Comparison Shopping System, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 4251:1251–1267, 2006 (PDF)


With the spread of the so-called always-online environment that allows consumers to be online anytime, anyplace, the next step will be the integration of online and offline markets. Competition will be consequently further intensified and there is a probability that in the process the role of offline retailers will shift from that of a traditional retailer to a displayer role. When this occurs, appropriate technological devices and business models should be explored so that both displayers and retailers can benefit. To this end, this paper proposes an RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology-based pervasive comparison shopping business model. RFID will allow consumers to be seamlessly connected to the network, and the advent of a new shopping network will enable a smoothly functioning incentive mechanism between displayers and retailers. Ultimately, a new shopping network will enable consumers to be engaged in seamless commerce.


A Pervasive Comparison Shopping Business Model for Integrating Offline and Online Marketplace

Lee, K., Seo, Y., A Pervasive Comparison Shopping Business Model for Integrating Offline and Online Marketplace, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Electronic Commerce, p.289-294, Fredericton, Canada, 2006.pdf


In always-online environment that allows consumers to be online anytime, anyplace, the next step will be the integration of online and offline markets and there is a possibility that the role of offline retailers shifts to that of a displayer. When this occurs, appropriate technological devices and business models should be explored so that both displayers and retailers can benefit. To this end, this paper proposes an Auto-Identification technology (e.g. RFID)-based pervasive comparison shopping business model. The auto-identification technology will allow consumers to be seamlessly connected to the network, and the advent of a new shopping network will enable an incentive mechanism between displayers and retailers. Ultimately, a new shopping network will enable consumers to be engaged in seamless commerce.


Comparison Shopping, Auto-Identification, RFID, Ubiquitous Computing, Seamlessness, U-Commerce, Business Model

A Payment and Receipt Business Model in U-Commerce Environment

Lee, K., Ju, J., Jeong, M., A Payment and Receipt Business Model in U-Commerce Environment, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Electronic Commerce, p.319-324, Fredericton, Canada, 2006.pdf


The key to U-payment is convenience and security in the transfer of financial information. The purpose of this paper is to find a desirable U-payment scheme promoting seamlessness and privacy with a consumer device and peer-based information transactions. We also propose a new business model through digital receipt which is evidence of commercial decision making and transaction. We propose U-PR (Ubiquitous Payment and Receipt) business model and method as a way to make transactions seamless, secure and privacy protected.


U-Commerce, Payment, Seamlessness, Privacy, U-Receipt, U-Coupon, Wireless Ad Hoc Peer to Peer Networking, Incentive Mechanism

Incentive-based and Peer-oriented Design of Ubiquitous Commerce

Lee, K., Ju, J., Incentive-based and Peer-oriented Design of Ubiquitous Commerce, Proceedings of ICEIS(The 9th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems)-2007, pp.623-631, Portugal, June 12-16, 2007.pdf


Seamlessness is the keyword of U-Commerce which may be defined as the commercial interaction among providers, consumers, products, and services, enabled and supported especially by the real-world seamless communication of each entity and object’s digital information. However, the possibility of the seamless transactions increases the privacy risk of the entities involved. Therefore, the core issue of U-Commerce is how to promote seamless transactions while protecting the privacy. For the seamlessness, the role of incentive-emphasized business model is important since the seamlessness makes clear which economic entities contribute to a commercial transaction. Economic entities will reject the seamless transactions unless the sufficient incentives are given to them. In order to consider the privacy issue, we suggest an alternative U-Commerce architecture based on Hybrid P2P Model and Personal Information Base.


Ubiquitous Commerce, Seamlessness, Privacy, Business Model, Peer-Oriented, PIB (Personal Information Base)

Ubiquitous Commerce Business Models Based on Ubiquitous Media

Lee, K., Ju, J., Ubiquitous Commerce Business Models Based on Ubiquitous Media, Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Business Information Systems, pp.510-521, April, Poznan, Poland, 2007. ISBN 978-3-540-72034-8.pdf


 Conventional media, such as newspapers, radio, TV and Internet appeal human cognitive and perceptual organisms such as brain, eyes and ears. The producers of text, image, and video use their cognitive and perception processes and their consumers also receive and interpret the messages using the same two kinds of processes. However, the media in ubiquitous environment not only takes advantage of human biological systems, but also the digital systems of human beings while conventional media appeals only to people’s bio-systems. Ubiquitous media creates and consumes content through not only human cognitive and perceptual processes but also through the interactions between surrounding digital systems. U-Media(Ubiquitous media) provides information by generating, collecting, and attaching the content itself and the related information based on the interaction of the bio-systems incorporating digital information and devices embedded in humans, and surrounding objects including external digital devices. This paper investigates the concept of media in ubiquitous environments and proposes a commerce business model based on U-Media.

Design of Tag Match Advertising System and the Evaluation of the Business Model

Jungho Jun, Kyoung Jun Lee, Design of Tag Match Advertising System and the Evaluation of the Business Model, IEEE International Workshop on Ubiquitous Network Computing 2008 (UNC’08), pp.1527-1532, December 9-12, Jiaosi, Yilan, Taiwan, 2008.pdf


This paper designs the ‘Tag Match’ advertising system which uses mobile RFID. Tag Match Advertising (TMA) combines features of the mobile RFID characteristics and content match advertising model on the Internet. TMA can be defined as ‘an advertising model, based on mobile RFID application, which offers advertisement for users after the consideration of users’ demographic information, the location and time when users scan a RFID tag and the content of the tag when users scan it’. This paper proposes the architectures and the user interface of TMA and evaluates the feasibilities of the business model by assessing the assumptions that are the basis of structured model.


Tag Match Advertising (TMA), Mobile RFID, Business Model, Ubiquitous Computing

A Peer-to-Peer CF-Recommendation for Ubiquitous Environment

Kim, H., Lee, K., Kim, J., A Peer-to-Peer CF-Recommendation for Ubiquitous Environment, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4088: 678-683, 2006.pdf


In ubiquitous environment where all entities can freely connect and collaborate with each other from anywhere, the amount of accessible information is overwhelming and desired information often remains unfound. So there is a growing need to provide the personalized recommendation services for the customers in ubiquitous space. This paper suggests a UREC_P2P (U-Recommendation by peer-to-peer), a recommendation procedure in ubiquitous environment adopting P2P technologies combined with collaborative filtering algorithm. UREC_P2P is implemented and comparatively evaluated with a CFbased recommender system in client-server environment. The evaluation result shows that UREC_P2P has a good potential to be a preeminent and realistic solution to the recommendation problems encountered in ubiquitous environment.

U-Commerce in Service Space: Business Model Analysis and Case Study

이현석, 이경전, 서비스 공간에서의 유비쿼터스 상거래 비즈니스 모델 분석 및 사례 연구, 지능정보연구, 14(2):45-62, 2008. ISSN 1229-4152. pdf (in Korean)


 Previous U-Commerce researches have dealt with the business support systems for traditional commerce space such as real world shopping malls. This paper investigates U-Commerce business models in service space. The McDonald’s Touch-Order case is analyzed from business model perspective and the Media-Embedded Place business model is introduced as a UCommerce business model for value creation in service space. The mediaembedded place business model attaches autoidentification tags to tables or billboards, triggers commercial transaction through the tags, and shares the revenues and the incentives among the place owners and commerce/content providers. This paper analyzes its scenario and applications and illustrates the profitability analysis using socalled ‘tag evaluation model’.

Key Word

Ubiquitous Commerce, RFID(Radio Frequency Identification), Business Model, MediaEmbedded Place