A Study on NFC Technology Utilization and Application Cases in Museum/Gallery

이경전, 최명희, 권선희, 전정호, “박물관 및 미술관의 근접 무선 통신 기술 적용 사례와 활용 방안 연구”, 문화예술경영학연구, 6(1), 29-51, 2013, (PDF) in Korean


본 연구는 박물관 및 미술관에 NFC 기술을 적용하여, 기존 실세계 전시 공간을 새로운 미디어로 변화시키고자 하는 전시 공간 사업자에게 의미 있는 시사점을 제시하는 것을 목적으로 한다. 실세계 공간에 NFC 기술을 적용하는 것은 실세계 공간을 미디어로 변화시키는 것을 의미하는데, 미디어는 하나의 객체와 다른 객체를 이어주는 역할을 수행하는 것을 말한다. 즉, 기존 전시 공간에 NFC 기술이 적용됨에 따라 실세계 존시 공간의 객체와 온라인 공간의 디지털 콘텐츠 사이의 이음매 없는 연결이 가능해지며, 이를 기반으로 실세계 전시 공간 자체가 미디어의 역할을 수행하게 되는 것이다. 본 연구에서는 실세계 공간의 미디어화를 위한 기술로서의 NFC 기술을 소개하고, NFC 기술이 적용된 국내외 박물관 및 미술관 사례를 검토하며, 박물관 및 미술관에 NFC 기술을 적용한 경험을 공유한다. 그리고 다양한 정보 획득, 새로운 형태의 상거래의 발생, 관람 경험의 용이한 기록 및 공유, 전시 공간의 새로운 마케팅 채널 확보, CRM 도구로서의 활용 등을 박물관 및 미술관의 NFC 기술 적용 의의로 제시한다.

A Study on NFC Technology Utilization and Application Cases in Museum/Gallery



The main purpose of this research is to propose some meaningful implications for exhibition space operators who want to make the conventional exhibition space into media by taking advantage of the NFC technology. Applying NFC technology into  the real world means changing real world into media. which is considered to act as a medium that links one subject to another. In other words, if NFC technology is applied into the conventional exhibition space, the seamless connection between objects in the exhibition space and digital information in the online environment is realized and based on this, the exhibition space itself plays the role of media. In this research, we introduce the NFC technology to make real world into media, review cases regarding NFC-based museums and galleries, and share our experiences in the application of NFC technology into such exhibition spaces. Moreover we propose the significance in applying NFC technology into museums and galleries, for example, obtaining various types of information, new forms of commercial transaction, easier recording and sharing of viewing experiences, securing new marketing channel, and utilization of the technology as a CRM tool.

MMORPG and Artificial Intelligence

이경전, MMORPG와 인공지능, 정보과학회지 23(6), 2005. (PDF) in Korean



Design of Ubiquitous Referral Marketing A Business Model and Method

이경전, 이종철, 유비쿼터스 구전 마케팅 시나리오와 비즈니스 모델 개발, 한국지능정보시스템학회 논문지, 12(1):163-174, 2006. (PDF) in Korean


This paper provides a corporation’s marketing strategy under a ubiquitous computing environment: a WOM(word-of-mouth) marketing using RFID(Radio Frequency Identification) technology and a business model which facilitates the word-of-mouth marketing. To this end, we examine the word-of-mouth communication effects on consumers’ life, changes in corporations’ attitude toward word-of-mouth marketing, and the difficulties that corporations have in conducting word-of-mouth marketing. The business model this paper suggests makes seamless business-to-consumer and consumer-to-consumer networking possible using the RFID technology and facilitates the word-of-mouth marketing through incentive system of each economic player.

Tag-based Evaluation Model for Economic Feasibility Analysis of Mobile RFID System in Ubiquitous Space

이경전, 최형광, 전정호, 유비쿼터스 공간 구축을 위한 모바일 RFID 시스템의 경제성 평가에 대한 연구: 태그 기반 평가 모델을 중심으로, IT서비스학회지, 10(3), 2011. (PDF) in Korean


It is important issue how to evaluate the economic feasibility of computing factors in the real world when we build ubiquitous spaces. In this paper, we propose a simple model that can evaluate the economic feasibility of mobile RFID-based ubiquitous computing system which enables seamless communication between offline and online via embedded computing factors in the real world. To achieve this, we explore the meaning of mobile RFID system, the difference between our research and extant researches concerning the evaluation of economic feasibility in RFID system, and propose the so-called ‘Tag-based Evaluation Model’ (TEM) which is an evaluation model to access the economic feasibility of mobile RFID systems. We also analyze the TEM via simulation cases based on proposed model and discuss the future of TEM.

SPB(Seamlessness-Privacy-Benefit) Paradigm for Construction of Highly-Connected Information Society

이경전, 전정호, 고도 정보 연계 사회의 구축을 위한 SPB 패러다임, 한국IT서비스학회지, 11(2): 131-146, 2012 (PDF) in Korean


The purpose of this research is two-fold : (1) we propose the paradigm to construct a connected information society according to a judgment where a coming information society will evolve into highly-connected information society having “seamlessness” as a keyword, and (2) we draw guidelines to construct infrastructures and establish systems and business models of highly-connected information society based on suggested paradigm. To achieve this, this research conducts the followings. First, we suggest reasons why a coming information society can be appropriate to be considered as highly-connected information society by examining two perspectives on the coming information society. Second, we explain the definition and characteristics of highly-connected information society and propose the SPB paradigm. Third, we analyze the utility of SPB paradigm by evaluating practices. Finally, we suggest four strategies to construct highly-connected information society based on advanced research findings and future research directions.

Ubiquitous Commerce Business Models Based on Ubiquitous Media

Lee, K., Ju, J., Ubiquitous Commerce Business Models Based on Ubiquitous Media, Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Business Information Systems, pp.510-521, April, Poznan, Poland, 2007. ISBN 978-3-540-72034-8.pdf


 Conventional media, such as newspapers, radio, TV and Internet appeal human cognitive and perceptual organisms such as brain, eyes and ears. The producers of text, image, and video use their cognitive and perception processes and their consumers also receive and interpret the messages using the same two kinds of processes. However, the media in ubiquitous environment not only takes advantage of human biological systems, but also the digital systems of human beings while conventional media appeals only to people’s bio-systems. Ubiquitous media creates and consumes content through not only human cognitive and perceptual processes but also through the interactions between surrounding digital systems. U-Media(Ubiquitous media) provides information by generating, collecting, and attaching the content itself and the related information based on the interaction of the bio-systems incorporating digital information and devices embedded in humans, and surrounding objects including external digital devices. This paper investigates the concept of media in ubiquitous environments and proposes a commerce business model based on U-Media.

Ubiquitous Business Model by Seamless Integration of Photo and Location Information

Jeong-In Ju, Jong Chul Lee, Kyoung Jun Lee, Ubiquitous Business Model by Seamless Integration of Photo and Location Information, IEEE International Workshop on Ubiquitous Network Computing 2008 (UNC’08), pp.1533-1537, December 9-12, Jiaosi, Yilan, Taiwan, 2008.pdf


Photos are one of the most popular contents in many social networking sites, and their usage is suitable for commercial purposes because a particular place has its own characteristic or symbolic meaning related to products and services. However, it is difficult to find business models using photos due to limitation that is to save and use location information automatically and systematically. U-Photo business model which we propose in this paper is a sort of network business model to connect content producer, consumer and sponsor. It also promotes specific location where end user takes photos to sponsor who wants to advertise through the location. The aim of this research is to develop a new business model using photos in U-Commerce/Media environment. We also analyze the implications of this business model and evaluate this business model to judge that it is going to work well in the real market.


Commerce-Media Integrated Space, U-Commerce, U-Media, U-Photo Business Model

Design and Evaluation of U-Publication: Tag-Embedded Publication System and Business Model

박아름, 이경전, U-Publication 시스템과 비즈니스 모델의 설계와 분석, 지능정보연구, 14(3):41-57, 2008. ISSN 1229-4152.pdf (in Korean)



U-Publication, the Tag-Embedded publication, is one of U-Media. U-Media is defined as a media where human creates and consumes content through not only human cognitive and perceptual processes but also through the interactions between surrounding digital systems. U-Media provides information by generating, collecting, and attaching the content itself and the related information based on the interaction of the bio-systems incorporating digital information and devices embedded in humans, and surrounding objects including external digital devices. Using U-Publication, readers consume its content not only in offline but also online through a mobile RFID reader which touches and connects the URLs embedded in the RFID tags attached to it. Readers can consume the additional content though the hyperlinks attached to U-Publication and perform commercial activity as well as consumer the printed content. This paper defines the RFID-Tagged publication, proposes its related business models, and evaluates the alternative business models through a simulation study.


Key Word


U-Media, U-Commerce, Mobile RFID, Business Model, NFC(Near-Field Communication)

Desinging Business Models of U-Display Seamlessly Integrated with Mobile Devices in IPTV Era

 윤은정, 이경전, 모바일 단말과 연동하는 IPTV 시대의 U-디스플레이 Business Model 설계, Telecommunications Review 제 19 권 2 호, 2009.pdf (in Korean)



Unlike the previous display transmitting video content in one-way, the display in IPTV era is expected to offer useful and interesting information to media consumer and take a role as a new media nowadays. This research suggests Ubiquitous Display business model that can realize ‘Seamlessness’ between an individual user who watch display using a personal device and display in the Ubiquitous computing environment. Unlike the previous display appealing to the human’s visual-auditory sense, U-Display enables the seamless information transmission between display and users by providing the personal device users with the content link as well as the content on display. This paper suggests five kinds of U-Display scenarios that can be realized in ubiquitous computing environment through various technical alternatives, analyze the participants and their roles of the business model, and evaluates its economic possibility.


Key Word


U-Display, Business Model, IPTV, Seamlessness, Mobile RFID, Bluetooth/ZigBee, U-Media, UCommerce

An Integrative View on Publication in Ubiquitous Era: Definition of U-Publication and its Relationship with e-Book

박아름, 이경전, 유비쿼터스 시대의 출판에 대한 통합적 시각 – U-Publication 정의 및 e-Book과의 관계, 한국출판학연구, 35(1):105-138, 2009. ISSN 1738-0421. pdf (in Korean)




Information technology has changed the forms of publications and the way of producing, distributing, and consuming them. This paper analyzes the influence that the Ubiquitous Computing, as a recent information technology, brings about changes in publication. Prior studies defined u-book as a book with which readers can consume its contents anywhere, sometimes by any device. In other words, u-book was defined as being added mobility for the readers to consume its content. Ubiquitous Computing(UC) paradigm is a view contrary to Virtual Reality(VR) computing paradigm. UC emphasizes the construction of computer-embedded real world, u-space, while VR pursues the construction of computer-generated virtual world – the cyberspace. Based on the exact recognition of the ubiquitous computing paradigm and the critical literature review, this paper defines U-Publication and analyzes the relationship between U-Publication and e-Book through an integrative framework. To investigate the fundamental differences between e-Book and U-Publication, several cases belonging to each category are selected. The comparative case studies showed considerable differences in the way of configuring, producing, distributing, and consuming publication contents in e-Book and U-Publication. This demonstrates that the cases called ‘u-book’ in previous study may be classified as a category of e-Book rather than U-Publication.


Key Word 

ubiquitous media, ubiquitous publication, ubiquitous computing, business model, e-Book