A Time-bound Framework for Negotiation and Decision Making of Virtual Manufacturing Enterprise

Lee, K., Chang, Y., Choi, H., Kim, H., Park, Y., Park, B., “A Time-bound Framework for Negotiation and Decision Making of Virtual Manufacturing Enterprise,” Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce, Vol. 14, no.1, 27-41, 2004. – SCI, ISSN:1054-1721. pdf


Virtual manufacturing has 2 characteristics as an agent-based electronic commerce environment: dynamic nature of resource status and variety of agents’ decision-making (i.e., scheduling) model. To reflect the characteristics, a relevant negotiation protocol should be designed and an appropriate decision-making model should be developed. In this article, from the perspective of a sales agent that is a middle man between customers and manufacturers in a virtual manufacturing environment, we provide a case study that suggests a time-bound framework for external negotiation between sales agents and customer agents, and internal cooperation between sales agents and manufacturing agents. We assume a job shop as the production model of a virtual manufacturing enterprise and formulate the optimal order selection problem with mixed integer programming, but its computation time is not acceptable for real-world problems. For this time-constrained decision making, we develop a genetic algorithm as an problem- solving method for the scheduling of the production model, which shows a reasonable computation time for real-world cases and good incremental problem-solving capability.

Evaluation of an online multidimensional auction system: A computer simulation investigation

Sungwon Cho, Kyoung Jun Lee, Martha E. Crosby, David N. Chin, Evaluation of an online multidimensional auction system: A computer simulation investigation, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3182:126-134, September, 2004. – SCIE ISSN:0302-9743.pdf


Through computer simulations, this paper evaluates the performance of an online multidimensional auction system with negotiation support and especially focuses on investigating the efficacy of two design features of online multidimensional auction system on its performance: sellers’ feedback and post-utility scoring method. The performance of the auction system is measured by joint gain and speed of convergence. The simulation results demonstrate that the use of sellers’ feedback and post-utility scoring method lead to better bargaining outcomes as measured by the buyer’s total utility and the number of auction rounds. The research results provide important theoretical implications about the role of information feedback in auction design.

A comparison shopping optimization model based on suppliers’ pricing contexts

Yong Sik Chang and Kyoung Jun Lee, A comparison shopping optimization model based on suppliers’ pricing contexts, Expert Systems with Applications, Volume 37, Issue 8, August 2010, Pages 5736-5744.pdf


Consumers in the online shopping environment have had difficulties in selecting an optimal supplier. This is caused by the fact that current comparison shopping services have limitations in considering supplier’s various pricing strategies. Current Comparison Shopping Model (CSM) including these limitations may enable online consumers to select a non-optimal supplier. To overcome these problems, we proposed a Comparison Shopping Optimization Model based on Suppliers’ Pricing Contexts (CSOM-SPC), which gives online consumers effective price-sorted suppliers. Through illustrative experimentation and paired t-test, we show that CSOM-SPC provides more realistic and effective comparison prices compared with current CSM.

Key Word

Online shopping Comparison shopping Optimization model Pricing contexts

A Pervasive Comparison Shopping Business Model for Integrating Offline and Online Marketplace

Lee, K., Seo, Y., A Pervasive Comparison Shopping Business Model for Integrating Offline and Online Marketplace, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Electronic Commerce, p.289-294, Fredericton, Canada, 2006.pdf


In always-online environment that allows consumers to be online anytime, anyplace, the next step will be the integration of online and offline markets and there is a possibility that the role of offline retailers shifts to that of a displayer. When this occurs, appropriate technological devices and business models should be explored so that both displayers and retailers can benefit. To this end, this paper proposes an Auto-Identification technology (e.g. RFID)-based pervasive comparison shopping business model. The auto-identification technology will allow consumers to be seamlessly connected to the network, and the advent of a new shopping network will enable an incentive mechanism between displayers and retailers. Ultimately, a new shopping network will enable consumers to be engaged in seamless commerce.


Comparison Shopping, Auto-Identification, RFID, Ubiquitous Computing, Seamlessness, U-Commerce, Business Model

A Payment and Receipt Business Model in U-Commerce Environment

Lee, K., Ju, J., Jeong, M., A Payment and Receipt Business Model in U-Commerce Environment, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Electronic Commerce, p.319-324, Fredericton, Canada, 2006.pdf


The key to U-payment is convenience and security in the transfer of financial information. The purpose of this paper is to find a desirable U-payment scheme promoting seamlessness and privacy with a consumer device and peer-based information transactions. We also propose a new business model through digital receipt which is evidence of commercial decision making and transaction. We propose U-PR (Ubiquitous Payment and Receipt) business model and method as a way to make transactions seamless, secure and privacy protected.


U-Commerce, Payment, Seamlessness, Privacy, U-Receipt, U-Coupon, Wireless Ad Hoc Peer to Peer Networking, Incentive Mechanism

Incentive-based and Peer-oriented Design of Ubiquitous Commerce

Lee, K., Ju, J., Incentive-based and Peer-oriented Design of Ubiquitous Commerce, Proceedings of ICEIS(The 9th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems)-2007, pp.623-631, Portugal, June 12-16, 2007.pdf


Seamlessness is the keyword of U-Commerce which may be defined as the commercial interaction among providers, consumers, products, and services, enabled and supported especially by the real-world seamless communication of each entity and object’s digital information. However, the possibility of the seamless transactions increases the privacy risk of the entities involved. Therefore, the core issue of U-Commerce is how to promote seamless transactions while protecting the privacy. For the seamlessness, the role of incentive-emphasized business model is important since the seamlessness makes clear which economic entities contribute to a commercial transaction. Economic entities will reject the seamless transactions unless the sufficient incentives are given to them. In order to consider the privacy issue, we suggest an alternative U-Commerce architecture based on Hybrid P2P Model and Personal Information Base.


Ubiquitous Commerce, Seamlessness, Privacy, Business Model, Peer-Oriented, PIB (Personal Information Base)

Ubiquitous Commerce Business Models Based on Ubiquitous Media

Lee, K., Ju, J., Ubiquitous Commerce Business Models Based on Ubiquitous Media, Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Business Information Systems, pp.510-521, April, Poznan, Poland, 2007. ISBN 978-3-540-72034-8.pdf


 Conventional media, such as newspapers, radio, TV and Internet appeal human cognitive and perceptual organisms such as brain, eyes and ears. The producers of text, image, and video use their cognitive and perception processes and their consumers also receive and interpret the messages using the same two kinds of processes. However, the media in ubiquitous environment not only takes advantage of human biological systems, but also the digital systems of human beings while conventional media appeals only to people’s bio-systems. Ubiquitous media creates and consumes content through not only human cognitive and perceptual processes but also through the interactions between surrounding digital systems. U-Media(Ubiquitous media) provides information by generating, collecting, and attaching the content itself and the related information based on the interaction of the bio-systems incorporating digital information and devices embedded in humans, and surrounding objects including external digital devices. This paper investigates the concept of media in ubiquitous environments and proposes a commerce business model based on U-Media.

Design of Tag Match Advertising System and the Evaluation of the Business Model

Jungho Jun, Kyoung Jun Lee, Design of Tag Match Advertising System and the Evaluation of the Business Model, IEEE International Workshop on Ubiquitous Network Computing 2008 (UNC’08), pp.1527-1532, December 9-12, Jiaosi, Yilan, Taiwan, 2008.pdf


This paper designs the ‘Tag Match’ advertising system which uses mobile RFID. Tag Match Advertising (TMA) combines features of the mobile RFID characteristics and content match advertising model on the Internet. TMA can be defined as ‘an advertising model, based on mobile RFID application, which offers advertisement for users after the consideration of users’ demographic information, the location and time when users scan a RFID tag and the content of the tag when users scan it’. This paper proposes the architectures and the user interface of TMA and evaluates the feasibilities of the business model by assessing the assumptions that are the basis of structured model.


Tag Match Advertising (TMA), Mobile RFID, Business Model, Ubiquitous Computing

Ubiquitous Business Model by Seamless Integration of Photo and Location Information

Jeong-In Ju, Jong Chul Lee, Kyoung Jun Lee, Ubiquitous Business Model by Seamless Integration of Photo and Location Information, IEEE International Workshop on Ubiquitous Network Computing 2008 (UNC’08), pp.1533-1537, December 9-12, Jiaosi, Yilan, Taiwan, 2008.pdf


Photos are one of the most popular contents in many social networking sites, and their usage is suitable for commercial purposes because a particular place has its own characteristic or symbolic meaning related to products and services. However, it is difficult to find business models using photos due to limitation that is to save and use location information automatically and systematically. U-Photo business model which we propose in this paper is a sort of network business model to connect content producer, consumer and sponsor. It also promotes specific location where end user takes photos to sponsor who wants to advertise through the location. The aim of this research is to develop a new business model using photos in U-Commerce/Media environment. We also analyze the implications of this business model and evaluate this business model to judge that it is going to work well in the real market.


Commerce-Media Integrated Space, U-Commerce, U-Media, U-Photo Business Model